• 1. 
    The three stages of cell signalling are

  • paracrine, local, and synaptic
  • reception, transduction, and response
  • transcription, translation, and folding
  • alpha, beta, and gamma
  • 2. 
    Which of the following would be an example of paracrine signaling in animals?

  • neurotransmitter acetylcholine
  • hormone epinephrine
  • neurotransmitter norepinephrine
  • growth factor
  • 3. 
    What does a protein phosphatase do?

  • removes phosphates
  • transfers phosphates from ATP to proteins
  • activates an enzyme with a signal molecule
  • 4. 
    Testosterone does not affect all cells of the body because __________.

  • testosterone cannot cross the plasma membrane
  • not all cells have cytoplasmic receptors for testosterone
  • not all cells in the body have membrane receptors for testosterone
  • it is a local regulator
  • it affects only cells that have ion-channel receptors
  • 5. 
    What is a phosphorylation cascade?

  • travelling of hormones through the air
  • travelling of hormones through the blood
  • the removal of a phosphate
  • a series of molecules that get phosphorylated
  • 6. 
    A cell is known to respond to a particular signaling molecule. Which of the following must be true of this cell?

  • It is in the heart muscle
  • it is also the site of production for the signaling molecule
  • It contains the receptor for the signaling molecule
  • It is incapable of signal transduction
  • 7. 
    Do plant cells communicate using hormones?

  • yes
  • no
  • 8. 
    Which of the following converts cAMP to AMP?

  • phosphodiesterase
  • protein phosphatase
  • GTPase
  • 9. 
    The source of phosphate for a phosphorylation cascade is __________.

  • cAMP
  • protein kinase
  • GTP
  • ATP
  • protein phosphatase
  • 10. 
    G proteins are a family of proteins involved in transmitting chemical signals originating from outside a cell into the inside of the cell. G proteins function as molecular switches.Which of the following best describes the role in which the G protein is most intimately involved in the process shown above?

  • Production of the ligand molecule.
  • Reception of the signal.
  • Transduction of the signal.
  • Production of response to signal.
  • 11. 
    What do second messengers do?

  • transport a signal through the lipid bilayer
  • relay a signal from the outside to the inside of the cell
  • relay message from the inside of the mebrane throughout the cytoplasm
  • dampen the message
  • 12. 
    Receptors for signal molecules __________.

  • all work via protein kinases
  • are never found in the nucleus of a cell
  • may be found embedded in the plasma membrane, or found within the cytoplasm or nucleus
  • all work by opening ion channels
  • are only found associated with the plasma membrane
  • 13. 
    Signal amplification is most often achieved by

  • an enzyme cascade
  • binding of multiple signals
  • branching pathways
  • action of adenylyl cyclase
  • 14. 
    DNA sequence to which hormones of steroid hormone superfamily binds is called

  • HRE
  • CRE
  • SRE
  • GRE
  • 15. 
    What type of transmembrane receptor is being shown?

  • G-protein receptor
  • tyrosine kinase receptor
  • gated ion channel
  • 16. 
    A signal molecule that binds to a plasma-membrane protein is a

  • ligand
  • second messenger
  • protein kinase
  • receptor protein
  • 17. 
    What is being depicted in the image?

  • Amplification of the signal molecule
  • Enzymatic proteins inhibiting process of the signal transduction pathway
  • Kinase groups adding dimer groups to other enzymes
  • Diffusion of molecules within the cell due to the signaling molecule
  • 18. 
    Cell signaling by hormones is an example of -

  • Paracrine Signaling
  • Endocrine Signaling
  • Autocrine Signaling
  • Direct Cell to Cell Signaling
  • 19. 
    1. Each of the following numbered processes are involved in signal transduction pathways: I. Response II. Amplification III. Reception IV. Transduction Which of the following represents the sequence of events in a typical signal transduction pathway?

  • I, II, III, IV
  • III, I, IV, II
  • II, IV, I, III
  • III, IV, II, I
  • 20. 
    Why is apoptosis required?

  • Glycolysis
  • Cell division: Meiosis and mitosis
  • Growth and elimination of threats such as viruses and DNA damage
  • 21. 
    What is a function of the second messenger IP3?

  • bind to and activate protein kinase A
  • activate transcription factors
  • convert ATP to cAMP
  • bind to and open ligand-gated channels
  • 22. 
    What does a protein kinase do?

  • removes phosphates
  • transfers phosphates from ATP to proteins
  • activates an enzyme
  • 23. 
    What is Apoptosis?

  • Cell programmed Death
  • Inflammation of cell
  • Phagocytosis
  • Plasmolysis
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