• 1. 
    In the 17th century, merchants from towns in Europe moved to the countryside to:

  • supply money to peasants and artisans to persuade them to produce for international markets.
  • persuade them to settle in towns.
  • provide them with small workshops.
  • stop them from working for other companies.
  • 2. 
    Name the first industrial country in the world:

  • France
  • Japan
  • Britain
  • Germany
  • 3. 
    Why couldn't the merchants expand production within towns?

  • The powerful guilds did not allow them to do so.
  • New merchants were not competent enough to carry on production work and trade.
  • New merchants had inadequate capital.
  • Competent weavers and artisans were not available in towns.
  • 4. 
    Where was the first cotton mill established? ;

  • Bombay
  • Ahmedabad
  • Kanpur
  • Madras
  • 5. 
    Who devised the Spinning Jenny?

  • James Hargreaves
  • James Watt
  • Richard Arkwright
  • Samuel Luke
  • 6. 
    How did urban merchants acquire trade monopoly?

  • The old merchants had won over the weavers and artisans.
  • The powerful members of the guilds had bribed the rulers.
  • The rulers granted different guilds the 'monopoly right' and trade of specific products.
  • The guilds were so powerful that they did not allow new merchants to enter into the field of trade.
  • 7. 
    Indian industrial growth increased after First World War because:

  • British opened new factories in India.
  • New technological changes occurred.
  • Indian mills now had a vast home market to supply to.
  • India became independent.
  • 8. 
    Which of the following helped the production of handloom cloth?

  • Employers were looking for only skilled workers and they rejected inexperienced applicants.
  • The number of jobs were less than the number of job seekers.
  • Employers did not prefer migrants.
  • Employers wanted educated workers.
  • 9. 
    What made workers become hostile to the 'Spinning Jenny'?

  • Common people had not yet accepted machine-made products.
  • To some people machines appeared as 'monsters'.
  • It had reduced the demand for labour.
  • Hand-made goods were still popular.
  • 10. 
    Which of the following is not a reason why industrialists in 19th century Europe preferred hand labour over machines?

  • There was abundance of labour, so wages were low.
  • Hand labour produced uniform and standardised goods for a mass market.
  • Machines required huge capital investment.
  • Industries, where demand was seasonal, industrialists preferred hand labour.
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